From the History

of the Photoemulsion

Use of photographic emulsions for study of nuclear particles began in 1896, when H. Becquerel for the first time observed a blackening of photoplates in contact to salts of uranium. In 1910 S. Kinoshita in laboratory of Rutherford has shown, that the haloid particle becomes capable to display, when in it the alpha a particle hits. In 1911 M. Reinganum has found out tracks of an alpha particles as separate grains. In 1912 W. Michl has seen these tracks of length about 23 microns. They contained approximately 8 grains. In 1925 M. Blau has shown, that the tracks in an emulsion leave not only of alpha particle but also protons. In 1927. Misovsky and Cijov have made emulsions with thickness of more than 50 microns. In 1935 Aleksandr Pavlovich Jdanof has shown, that the sensitivity of an emulsion to prompt in that time to protons depends on concentration AgBr and from the sizes of grains. In 1948 the firm of Kodac has made an emulsion NT4 capable to file tracks with the minimum ionization. Approximately in the same time in USSR Konstantin Sergeevich Bogomolov synthesized a photographic emulsion BR-2 with sensitivity at 25-30 of grains on 100 microns on tracks of particles with the minimum ionosation. Its industrial manufacture as pellicles by thickness of 600 microns not on a glass plate, and as chambers of volume up to two litres was adjusted. The presence of a coordinat greed on each pellicle ensured transition of the same track from a pellicle to a pellicle. Such technique is used and now. The first investigators used usual microscops for biological examinations. About 50 years back many firms have begun to release special microscops for works with nuclear photographic emulsions. A factory "PROGRESS", and then and the firm of LOMO in Leningrad has let out a series of microscops for scanning (MBI-9) and measurings in nuclear emulsions (MBI-8, MIRE-1, MPE-11). In Russia and short-range foreign countries (Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Tbilisi, Yerevan, Ulan-Bator) in basic are used microscops with automatic writing of coordinates of firms LOMO and Karl Zeiss.

Remembers about RIAN 1948-1950 years

Темная материя в фотоэмульсии

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